NASA’s Perseverance rover successfully landed on the surface of Mars in February 2021.
The main purpose of Perseverance is to collect soil and rock samples from the surface of Mars and deliver them to Earth. If things go as planned by NASA and the European Space Agency, these samples will reach Earth by 2031.
This project can be divided into 4 stages:
Stage 1: Collecting samples.
Stage 2: The sample is sealed and stored in persuasion.
Stage 3: Samples are deposited on the surface of Mars.
Stage 4: The NASA-European Space Agency jointly collects these samples and delivers them to Earth by 2030.
The Persuasion Rover will use its drill to collect samples from the rocks and soil on Mars. These samples are sealed in titanium tubes and deposited in multiple locations on the surface of Mars. 43 titanium sample tubes are prepared for this purpose.
In 2026 or 2028, NASA will launch a sample recovery lander to Mars in partnership with the European Space Agency. It will have a rover and a rocket known as the Mars Ascent vehicle.
After landing on Mars in 2028, the lander will retrieve sample tubes previously deposited by the Perseverance Rover at various locations and load them into the rocket. The rocket with the container containing the samples will then fly off the surface of Mars and into orbit around Mars.
At the same time, another spacecraft (Earth Return Orbiter) will reach Mars’ orbit from Earth. This orbiter will capture the orbiting container on the surface of Mars and return to Earth in 2031.