Starburst Galaxy

M82, an example of a Starburst galaxy. Its star formation rate is about ten times that of normal galaxies.

Stars in galaxies are formed from cold gas that turns into giant molecular clouds. Some galaxies have very high star formation rates. This phenomenon is known as starburst. However, if star formation continues at this high rate for a long time, the gas in the galaxy will be used up faster than the life span of the galaxy. Thus, the Starburst phenomenon lasts only about a billion years, which is a short period of time in galaxies. The number of Starburst galaxies was high in the early days of the universe. Fifteen percent of star formation still takes place in Starburst galaxies.

Starburst galaxies can be identified by dense, dusty gas fields and newly formed stars. H II regions are also created as massive new stars ionize the surrounding gas clouds. Massive stars also cause supernova explosions. Evolving supernova debris reacts with interstellar gases to form more stars. Starburst ends when all the gases are used up, forming stars throughout the galaxy.

Starburst formation is more likely to occur in converging or reacting galaxies. The M82 in Starburst is an example of this as a result of the interaction of the M81 with the galaxy. Starburst phenomena occur at regular intervals in regular galaxies.

Active Galactic Center

External galaxies that play an important role in energy production include stars, dust particles, and interstellar mediums called active galaxies. Active galaxies are defined as ‘accretion disks’ orbiting a massive black hole in the center. Radiation is the gravitational energy of matter falling from a disk into a black hole. It has been found that about 10% of active galaxies emit a pair of streams at the speed of light in opposite directions to the center. It is not yet clear how these occur

Active galaxies that emit large amounts of energy in the form of X-rays are called Seifert galaxies or quasars, depending on the amount of energy. Blazers are thought to be active galaxies with particle currents close to the speed of light in the direction of the Earth. Radio galaxies are active galaxies that emit radio waves from streams. The reason why they look different can be explained by the difference in the observer’s point of view

LINER (Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region) is another type of galaxy that is thought to be associated with active galaxies and starburst regions. Examination of radiation from liner galaxies reveals records of weakly ionized elements. Nearly one-third of the galaxies of the Milky Way contain liner centers.

Eg:. M87

Galaxies

Observations indicate that most galaxies are associated with other galaxies. Isolated galaxies that have not interacted with galaxies of equal size for the last billion years are rare. Only about 5% of galaxies are isolated in the universe. These are thought to have interacted with other galaxies in the past and may have been orbited by dwarf galaxies. The gas in isolated galaxies does not decompose as part of gravity from other galaxies, so it is possible that they have higher star formation rates.

According to Hubble’s law, the universe is expanding. It also increases the distance between galaxies. The distance between galaxies in an array can be prevented by mutual gravity. In the early days of the universe, galaxy clusters formed by the interaction of black matter. The groups merged to form clusters. As a result of this fusion and the inflow of gas from the outside, the temperature of the gas between the galaxies increases significantly (from three to ten million Kelvin). About 70-80 percent of the mass in the clusters is black matter, and 10-30 percent is hot gas, and the rest is just a few galaxies.

Most galaxies in the universe are gravitationally related to their surroundings. These combine to form a series of strategies. This range is similar to fractal. The smallest arrays are called groups. The group is the most common galaxy. Most galaxies and baryonic masses in the universe are located in groups. The kinetic energy of the galaxy must be low in order to be gravitationally related to the group. However, if the kinetic energy decreases, the member galaxies are more likely to collide and merge.

Clusters are large galaxies with thousands of galaxies and megaparsecs in diameter. Clusters usually have a giant elliptical orbit. This is called the brightest cluster galaxy. Over time, it destroys subgalaxies through tidal activity and makes their own mass.

Superclusters are clusters of tens of thousands of galaxies that are isolated and part of groups and clusters. Larger structures are called sheets and filaments. These are formed around voids, which are very small parts of broad galaxies. At higher distances the universe appears homogeneous and of the same nature in all directions.

The Milky Way is part of a galaxy called the Local Group. It is a group with a diameter of about one megaparse and only a few galaxies. Its brightest galaxies are the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. Most of the other galaxies in the group are dwarf galaxies. The local group is a member of the Vargo cluster, a super cluster centered on Vargo.

Abell 370 is an example of a dense galaxy group

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